Great Lakes Bioenergy research consistently results in new discoveries and new technologies. Here, we highlight high-impact research from all three of our research areas.
As plant breeding programs embrace the idea of the biorefinery, lignin is emerging as a potential feedstock for commodity chemicals. To improve our understanding of lignin’s chemical structure and find potential bioproducts in lignin, GLBRC researchers developed a powerful analytical method to identify new and low-abundance compounds within the complex lignin biopolymer.
Comprehensive information about bioenergy crops’ composition under field conditions is needed to design optimal systems for production, harvesting, storage, and biorefinery operations. In this study, GLBRC researchers used near-infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to characterize the composition of the energy Sorghum bicolorhybrid TX08001 grown in irrigated and non-irrigated field conditions, providing baseline information for future optimization.
Optimizing how we break down biomass is critical to developing valuable chemicals from renewable materials such as plant lignin. GLBRC researchers found that the bacteria Novosphingobium aromaticivorans rapidly breaks the β-aryl ether bond commonly found in lignin, and that its enzyme, a Nu-class glutathione S-transferase, performs the critical step of removing the antioxidant glutathione.
Understanding the mechanism of mixed-linkage glucan synthesis and accumulation in the cell wall of grasses
Grass species, which are among the major renewable feedstocks supporting biofuel production, can provide an abundant source of mixed-linkage glucan (MLG), a glucose polymer. Improving biofuel crops by increasing sugar yields requires a thorough understanding of biosynthetic mechanisms. In this study, GLBRC researchers demonstrated that MLG is present in the Golgi apparatus, in post-Golgi structures, and in the cell wall; these findings provide new insight on how to modify the localization of MLG synthase to maximize production of MLG.
The copper-catalyzed alkaline hydrogen peroxide (Cu-AHP) deconstruction process is highly effective at pretreating a genetically-modified type of poplar called "zip-lignin" poplar, resulting in high sugar yields for biofuel fermentation even when inputs are reduced. Zip-lignin poplar incorporates weak linkages into lignin, the hard-to-process compound that gives plant cell walls their sturdiness, rendering the poplar especially amenable to the Cu-AHP deconstruction method.
Spatial dependence, or the likelihood that nearby land units are more likely to be related than more distant ones, has effects on landowners' willingness to make land available for bioenergy production.
In this study, we used chemical genomics (CG) to identify the mechanisms of GVL toxicity to fermentative microbes. We identified gene deletions that confer sensitivity or tolerance to the solvent and then used this knowledge to engineer a xylose-fermenting yeast strain with improved tolerance to GVL and enhanced conversion of sugars to biofuel.
Discovering enzymes responsible for biodegradation of lignin to release high-value monomeric aromatic compounds
Many bacteria contain enzymes with the potential to convert renewable carbon sources into substitutes for compounds derived from petroleum. For example, the β-etherase pathway present in sphingomonad bacteria could cleave the abundant β-ether bonds in plant lignin, releasing a bio-based source of aromatic compounds for the chemical industry. In this study, GLBRC researchers demonstrated biodegradation of lignin polymers using a minimal set of β-etherase pathway enzymes.
We showed that Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis) lignification uses an unprecedented range of monolignol conjugates, the distribution of which varies depending on the tissue region, indicating that they may play specific roles in the cell walls in these tissues and/or in the plant’s defense system.
In this study we characterized the impacts of biofuel cropping systems on soil microbial communities, finding that these communities were strikingly different depending on soil depth.