Highlights

GLBRC's Publications

Highlights

Our researchers consistently turn out new and innovative research that can lead to publications and new technology. On this page we'll highlight new research publications and/or activities in the GLBRC that underscore the great work that our researchers are doing.

By providing mechanical strength and enabling reception and transmission of developmental and environmental cues, the plant cell wall serves as a critical interface between the protoplast and the surrounding environment.

Lignocellulose-derived hydrolysates contain several different inhibitors (collectively called lignotoxins or LTs) that arise during pre-treatment of biomass. Determining the mechanisms by which yeast or bacteria are adversely affected by LTs is a key step toward improving the efficiency of fermentation and bioconversion.

A major barrier to efficient conversion of lignocellulosic materials to biofuels is sensitivity of microbes to inhibitory compounds formed during biomass pretreatment. Aromatics derived from lignocellulose are a major class of inhibitors that are typically not metabolized by microbes commonly used as biocatalysts.

The prospect of converting large tracts of the Midwest’s marginal farming land to perennial biofuel crops carries with it some key unknowns, including how such a change could affect the balance of water between rainfall inputs, evaporation losses, and movement of soil water to the groundwater. In humid climates such as the U.S.

American crude oil imports have almost tripled since the early 1970s and now account for about half of the American petroleum supply, a dependence that is fueling climate change. Regulations intended to mitigate climate change, however, seek an 80% reduction in US greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2050 in order to stabilize global GHG concentrations at low to medium levels.

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas and a substantial proportion of the total carbon footprint associated with feedstock production, and as bioenergy cropping systems continue to be considered, their greenhouse gas emissions will be a key component of sustainability evaluation.

Microbial communities that have symbiotic relationships with biomass insects are now recognized to be a relevant source of microbes with diverse metabolic and biosynthetic capabilities that could be used in improving the enzymatic deconstruction of biomass materials for biofuel production. Recently, a highly cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic Actinomycete, Streptomyces sp.

A recent breakthrough in lignocellulosic biomass deconstruction at Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center utilizes γ-valerolactone (GVL), a renewable solvent that can be derived from the biomass itself. In a recent publication researchers at GLBRC designed a process for large-scale production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass that employs GVL for biomass deconstruction.

Non-productive binding of enzymes to lignin is thought to impede the saccharification efficiency of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars.

Bio-based societies could become a reality when biomass-derived renewable substitutes are found for the vast array of products currently derived from the processing of crude petroleum and other fossil sources. The biorefineries in these societies would integrate biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, and chemicals from biomass.

Scientists today demonstrated the potential for softwoods to process more easily into pulp and paper if engineered to incorporate a key feature of hardwoods. The finding, published in this week’s Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, could improve the economics of the pulp, paper and biofuels industries and reduce those industries’ environmental impact.

Lignocellulosic hydrolysates contain a number of compounds that are toxic to microbes and limit conversion of sugars to biofuels. Knowledge of the types of inhibitors formed during biomass pretreatment and/or hydrolysis and their biological targets is useful for engineering biocatalyst tolerance.

Plant seed oils offer many advantages over synthetic or mineral oils, including biodegradability, low toxicity, and exceptional lubricity.

Several types of grasses belonging to the Poaceae family can be grown as bioenergy crops in the Midwest regions of the U.S. due to its climate, soil fertility, and water availability.

One of the goals of systems biology is the mapping of gene interactions and regulatory networks from complex data sets. In many biological systems, a large part of the response to environmental signaling occurs at the level of transcription.

Lignin is a complex polymer found in plant secondary walls that plays an important role in mechanical support, water transport, and stress responses. In many applications, lignin has to be removed in order to access the cellulose and other polysaccharides for conversion into bioproducts or biofuels.

Crop rotations are a key element of agronomic management, as they can influence key ecosystem services such as crop yields, carbon and nutrient cycling, soil erosion, water quality, and pest and disease control.

Measurement of growth curves is of great utility in microbial research as a tool for characterizing strain phenotypes. Typically, a growth curve is generated by monitoring optical density of a liquid culture. Growth curves are usually sigmoid in shape. However, more complex patterns often arise as the result of various phenomena such as diauxic shifts, flocculation, and cell death.

Developing modern crops for human use has a rich history. Although there have been significant advances in increasing the harvest index of crops to maximize grain production, much of the crop residues are not utilized, making them an attractive source of biomass for bioenergy production.

The goal of the Sustainability Retreat is to provide a platform for all GLBRC Sustainability researchers to update their colleagues on specific advances made in the last year and to provide a time and space for developing strategies and coordination of efforts between groups across various GLBRC research sites.

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