2D NMR characterization of wheat straw residual lignin after dilute acid pretreatment with different severities

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2D NMR characterization of wheat straw residual lignin after dilute acid pretreatment with different severities

Publication Type:

Journal Article

Source:

Holzforschung, Volume 71, Number 6, p.461-469 (2017)

Keywords:

Enabling Technologies, Plants

Abstract:

The chemical characteristics of wheat straw lignin pretreated under dilute acid conditions were compared. After pretreatment, the lignin content of the solid residue increased as temperature increased (from 160°C to 190°C) and with the amount of acid added (0%, 0.25%, or 1% H2SO4). Pretreatment at 190°C with increasing concentrations of acid catalyst led to a decrease in glucan content, whereas the glucan content remained almost constant at 160°C pretreatment regardless of the acid concentration. The xylan content decreased in proportion with increased acid concentration and pretreatment temperature. The residual lignins were characterized by solution-state, two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Results showed that more ether bonds were cleaved with increased pretreatment temperature and lower pH, whereas the levels of carbon-carbon bonded structures (e.g. phenylcoumaran and resinol units) were hardly affected. With a pretreatment of 160°C and 1% H2SO4, the majority of the β-O-4 bonds were cleaved. In addition, lignin depolymerization was more evident than repolymerization at higher pretreatment temperatures and lower pH. Documenting lignin structural changes as a function of pretreatment parameters provides a tool for biorefineries to gain flexibility in processing parameters with full control over the final properties of the products.